Main Article Content
Extracts and isolated compounds of Allium sativum (garlic) have been found to be of health benefit. The study was aimed at assessing the effects of crude garlic extracts on urinopathogens of pregnant women, as well as to compare the antibacterial and genetic profiles of Nigerian indigenous and exotic varieties of garlic. Biodata and urine samples were collected from two hundred (200) healthy pregnant women attending antenatal clinics. The urine samples were subjected to urinalysis and bacteriological investigations. The subjects were 20 - 43 (31.03 ± 1.46) years old, with modal age 25-30 years. Urinalysis of subjects’ urine samples showed no nitrituria, haematuria and bilirubinuria. However, glucosuria (1.5%), ketonuria (3%), leukocyturia (15%) and proteinuria (24%) were detected. Bacterial loads of the urine samples range from 0 to 1100 (with mean value of 315.72) cfu/mL, an indication of non-urinary tract infection bacteriuria. Bacteria isolated from the urine samples were: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Corynebacterium accolens, Actinomyces urogenitalis, Luteococcus sanguinis and Bacillus cereus among others. The bacterial isolates showed high prevalence of multidrug resistant bacteria, with resistance to 2-8 drugs. The filtrates of crushed and centrifuged bulbs of both the indigenous and exotic varieties of garlic produced high antibacterial activities, while both ethanolic and methanolic extracts of garlic did not produce antibacterial activity. The indigenous variety showed higher antibacterial activities and protein qualities than the exotic variety, with both varieties showing genetic diversity. In conclusion, the Nigerian indigenous garlic was found to be of high antibacterial and protein qualities; and for maximal health benefit garlic needs to be chewed or crushed and consumed directly.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors hold the copyright of all published articles except otherwise stated.
Abdul, I.F. and Onile, B.A. (2001). Bacterial isolates from the urine of women in Ilorin and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 18(2): 61-65.
Akerele, J., Abhlimen, P. and Okonofua, F. (2001). Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Benin City, Nigeria. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 221 (2): 141-144.
Asmat, U., Mumtaz, M.Z. and Malik, A. (2021). Rising prevalence of multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria from urinary tract infections in pregnant women. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 6(1):102e111.
Barbario, E. and Lourenço, S.O. (2005). An evaluation of methods for extraction and quantification of protein from marine macro- and micro-algae. Journal of Applied Phycology, 17: 447-460
Batiha, G.E., Beshbishy, A.M., Wasef, L.G., Elewa, Y.H.A., Al-Sagan, A.A., Abd-El-Hack, M.E., Taha, A.E., Abd-Elhakim, Y.M. and Devkota, H.P. (2020). Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of garlic (Allium sativum L.): a review. Nutrients, 12: 872; doi: 10.3390/ nu12030872
Banerjee, S.K., Mukherjee, P.K. and Maulik, S.K. (2001). Garlic as an antioxidant: the good, the bad and the ugly. Phytotherapy Research, 17(2): 97–106
Barrow, G.I. and Feltham, R.K.A. (1993). Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. Cambridge University Press, London. 331 pp
Bello, B.K., Adetuyi, F., Oluwaseun, O., Anthonia, O. and Adegoke, S. (2017). Biomass and genetic variability among Telfaira occidentalis, Celosia argentea and Talinum triangulare harvested from Okitipupa, Nigeria studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). International Journal of Biosciences and Technology, 10(5): 30.
Chandrashekar, P.M. and Venkatesh, Y.P. (2009). Identification of the protein components displaying immunomodulatory activity in aged garlic extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 124(3): 384-390.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes, CLSI (2018). Performance Standard of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; 28th Information Supplement,CLSI, Wanye, USA.
Delzell, J.E. and Lefevre, M.L. (2000). Urinary tract infection during pregnancy. American Family Physician, 61(3):713-21.
Doyle, J.J. and Doyle, J.L. (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin, 19:11-15
Gideon Informatics. (1994-2020). Gideon Microbiology-Identify Bacteria. www.gideononline.com.
Habak, P.J. and Griggs, Jr R.P. (2020). Urinary tract infection in pregnancy. In: Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/B K537047
Ibitayo, A.O., Afolabi, O.B., Akinyemi, A.J., Ojiezeh, T.I., Adekoya, K.O. and Ojewunmi, O.O. (2017).
RAPD profiling, DNA fragmentation, and histomorphometric examination in brains of Wistar rats exposed to indoor 2.5 GHz Wi-Fi devices radiation. BioMed Research International, 2017: Article ID 8653286, pages.
Iqbal, A., Razzaq, A., Hadi, F., Nisar, M., Ozturk, M. and Altay, V. (2018). Assessment of genetic diversity among hybrid pea lines (Pisum Sativum L.) as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 27: 6447-6453.
Kumar, A. and Sharma, V.D. (2002). Inhibitory effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Indian Journal of Medicine, 76:66–70.
Lucas, M.J. and Cunningham, F.G. (1993). Urinary tract infection in pregnancy. Clinical Ob s t e t r i c s and Gynaecology, 36:555-568.
Mbakwem-Aniebo, C. and Ene, P.C. (2006). Etiology and prevalence of urinary tract infection in primary school children in Port Harcourt Metropolis. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 2: 362-365.
Mattley, Y.D. and Garcia-Rubio, L.H. (2001). Multiwavelength spectroscopy for the detection, identification, and quantification cells. Proceedings SPIE, 4206: 64-71. Nakamoto, M., Kunimura, K., Suzuki, J. and Kodera,
Y. (2020). Antimicrobial properties of hydrophobic compounds in garlic: Allicin, vinyldithiin, ajoene and diallyl polysulfides (Review). Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 19: 1550-1553. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.8388.
Okiki, P.A., Balogun B.D., Osibote, I.A., Asoso, S. and Adelegan, O. (2015). Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf on ESBL producing bacterial isolates from urine of patients with urinary tract infections. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 5(20): 124-132.
Onukak, A.E., Udoette, S.B. and Ekuma, A.E. (2021). Antibiogram of urinary tract pathogens in a tertiary
hospital in south-south Nigeria. Ibom Medical Journal, 14(2): 191–195.
Rees, L.P., Minney, S.F., Plumer, N.T., Slater, J.H. and Skyme, D.A. (1993). A quantitative assessment of antimicrobial activity of garlic (Allium sativum). World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 9: 303–307
Rolf, F.J. (1993). NTSYS-pc Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Version 2.0. Exeter Software, Applied Biostatistics Inc. Setauket, New York.
So T.K.A., Abdou, R., Sani, I.S., Toudou, A.K. and Bakasso, Y. (2021). Garlic (Allium sativum L.): Overview on its biology and genetic markers available for the analysis of its diversity in West Africa. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 7(3): 1-10.
Stevens, J. (2020). Pharmacy Times, 88(9). Available at: https://www. pharmacytimes.com/view/urinaryract-
Vandepitte, J., Verhaegen, J., Engbaek, K., Rohner, P., Piot, P. and Heuck, C.C. (2003). Basic Laboratory
procedures in Clinical Bacteriology 2nd Edition. World Health Organization Geneva.
Verma, K.S., ulHaq, S., Kachhwaha, S. and Kothari, S.L. (2017). RAPD and ISSR marker assessment of genetic diversity in Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad: a unique source of germplasm highly adapted to drought and high-temperature stress. 3 Biotech, 7(5): 288.
World Health Organization (2020). Antimicrobial Resistance. https://www.who.int/news-room/factsheets/detail/antimicrobial-resistance