Main Article Content
The rapid advancements in technology have spurred interest in electronic voting systems as a means to modernize and enhance the democratic electoral process. However, ensuring the security and integrity of electronic voting systems remains a critical challenge. In this study, we present a highly secure and efficient model for an electronic voting system, featuring a robust three-layer security architecture that includes the device authentication, user authentication and network security. The proposed system incorporates Kerberos authentication and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to fortify device and user authentication. The segmentation of the system network into zones that includes the Virtual Private Network, the Public Network and the Demilitarized Zone also helps to mitigate potential cyber-attacks and fraudulent activities. Leveraging biometric security (fingerprint) and user tokens (voter's cards), the system ensures the accurate identification and authentication of voters, thereby enhancing the overall integrity of the voting process. Through a series of tests involving 500 enrolled users, the proposed electronic voting system demonstrated remarkable efficacy, achieving a 100 percent accuracy rate in ballot tallying. Having addressed key concerns related to security and transparency, the proposed voting system has the potential to instil trust and confidence in electoral processes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
 Oostveen, A.M. & Van Den Besselaar, P. (2009). Users’ experiences with e-voting: A comparative case study. International Journal of Electronic Governance, 2(4), 357–377. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEG.2009.030527
 Nwogu, E.R. & Ihedigbo, C.E. (2016). A Structured and Layered Approach for a Modular Electronic Voting System: Defining the Security Service and the Network Access Layers. IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering, 18(04), 63–69. https://doi.org/10.9790/0661-1804026369
 Ben Ayed, A. (2017). A Conceptual Secure Blockchain Based Electronic Voting System. International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications, 9(3). https://doi.org/10.5121/ijnsa.2017.9301
 Kumar, D.D., Chandini, D.V. & Reddy, D. (2020). Secure Electronic Voting System using Blockchain Technology. International Journal of Smart Home, 14(2), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.21742/ijsh.2020.14.2.04
 Balzarotti, D., Banks, G., Cova, M., Felmetsger, V., Kemmerer, R., Robertson, W., Valeur, F. & Vigna, G. (2010). An experience in testing the security of real-world electronic voting systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 36(4), 453–473. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSE.2009.53
 Nwogu, E.R. & Onwuachu, U.C. (2016). Supervised Public Network Direct Recording Electronic Voting (PNDRE Voting) on Existing Global System for Mobile Communication Infrastructure; a Panacea for Cheap E-voting System Implementation in Nigeria. International Journal of Research Studies in Computer Science and Engineering, 3(2), 21–28. https://doi.org/10.20431/2349-4859.0302004
 Hacker, K. & van Dijk, J. (2014). Digital Democracy: Issues of Theory and Practice. In Digital Democracy: Issues of Theory and Practice. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446218891
 Van, D. & Jan, A.G.M. (2012). Digital democracy: Vision and reality. Innovation and the Public Sector, 19(1), 49 - 62. https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-137-3-49
 Khan, K.M., Arshad, J. & Khan, M.M. (2018). Secure digital voting system based on blockchain technology. International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 14(1), 53–62. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJEGR.2018010103
 Kovic, M. (2017). Blockchain for the people: Blockchain technology as the basis for a secure and reliable e-voting system. June. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/9qdz3
 Essex, A. (2016). Internet Voting in Canada: A Cyber Security Perspective. Brief Submitted to the House of CommonsSpecial….https://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee421/ERRE/Brief/BR8610535/br-external/EssexAleksander-e.pdf
 Prasetyadi, G.C., Mutiara, A.B. & Refianti, R. (2020). Blockchain-based electronic voting system with special ballot and block structures thatcomplies with indonesian principle of voting. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 11(1), 164–170. https://doi.org/10.14569/ijacsa.2020.0110121
 Gandhi, N. & Scholar, M.T. (2014). Study on Security of Online Voting System Using Biometrics and Steganography. International Journal of Computer Science & Communications 5(1), 29–32.
 Najam, S.S., Shaikh, A.Z. & Naqvi, S. (2018). A novel hybrid biometric electronic voting system: Integrating finger print and face recognition.In arXiv. https://doi.org/10.22581/muet1982.1801.05
 Del Blanco, D. Y. M., Alonso, L. P., & Alonso, J. A. H. (2018). Review of Cryptographic Schemes applied to Remote Electronic Voting systems: Remaining challenges and the upcoming post-quantum paradigm. Open Mathematics, 16(1), 95–112. https://doi.org/10.1515/math-2018-0013
 Oo, H.N. & Aung, A.M. (2013). Implementation and Analysis of Secure Electronic Voting System. Implementation and Analysis of Secure Electronic Voting System. International Journal Of Scientific & Technology. 2(3), 158–161.
 Nwogu, E.R. (2015). Mobile, Secure E -Voting Architecture for the Nigerian Electoral System. IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering Ver. II, 17(2), 2278–2661. https://doi.org/10.9790/0661-17222736
 Dayanand L., Nida K. G, Sahana D S, Brahmananda S H, Madhurya J A (2020).Kerberos: Security Analysis of Authentication Protocol. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, vol. 9(5), pp. 7569-7575 https://doi.org/10.30534/ijatcse/2020/94952020
 Al-Janabi, S.T.F. & Rasheed, M.A. (2011). Public-Key Cryptography Enabled Kerberos Authentication Conference: Developments in E-systems Engineering (DeSE), pp209-214. Doi:10.1109/DeSE.2011.16
 Wolchok, S., Wustrow, E., Isabel, D. & Halderman, J.A. (2012). Attackingthe Washington,D.C. internet voting system. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 7397 LNCS. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32946-3_10
 Patel, Manan (2020). Demilitarized Zone: An Exceptional Layer of Network Security to Mitigate DDoS Attack. Electronics Thesis and Dissertations, 8306, Accessed online on January, 2023. Available at https://scholar.Uwindsor.ca/etd/8306
 Nilesh, A.L., Salendra, P. & Mohammed, F. (2016). A Review of Authentication Methods. International Journal of Scientific &Technology Research 5(11), 346-249