Characterization of Anopheles Mosquitoes Larvae Breeding habitats in Selected Six Local Government Areas in Ekiti State, South-West Nigeria

Main Article Content

Adejumoke Adejayan
Okoh Hilary
Segun Oyedeji


This study explored the spatial distribution and attributes of Anopheles mosquito larvae breeding sites in six local government areas of Ekiti State, Nigeria. It employed a cross-sectional design, randomly sampling larvae habitats across three distinct locations, resulting in the assessment of a total of 18 breeding sites. The assessment of habitat characteristics and physico-chemical parameters of larvae breeding water-bodies was conducted through visual inspection and laboratory procedures, adhering to the standard protocol outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective of this study is to characteriseAnopheles mosquito larvae breeding habitats in six selected local government areas in Ekiti State using WHO protocol.. Two local governments were selected each from the three senatorial districts in the state and a survey was conducted to identify dams, rivers, swamps, marshlands, and temporary water ponds within each zone for Anopheles mosquito larvae using WHO protocols. Measurements of water temperature and pH were conducted twice in a week using a multi-parameter meter (PHB500- ww portable ph meter).Anopheles mosquito larvae were collected across the eighteen breeding sites in the selected six LGA in Ekiti using standard dipper, pasteur pipettes and scooping techniques and reared to adult in the laboratory. Most of the larvae habitats encountered were stagnant water bodies 10(56%) with the mean of 122.2 ± 41.20 followed by Tyre track 4(22%) with the mean of 129.8 ± 41.20, slowly flowing 2(11%) with the mean of 186.0 ± 16.97 and gutter 2(11%) with the mean of 170.0 ± 98.9. Types of breeding site across the six study area were all temporary sites 18(100%), more than half 13 (72%) of the habitats origin of water were natural, 11(61%) of the breeding habitats’ specific water body were stagnant water bodies. Furthermore, majority 14(78%) of the water bodies were polluted, 16(89%) were exposed to sunlight and it was also discovered that the all the breeding habitats across the six study area were around settlements (houses).  Therefore physicochemical characteristics such as Temperature (r=0.896, p=0.016), pH (r=0.865, p=0.026) and Electrical conductivity (r=0.865, p=0.045) were significantly associated with larvae abundant with a strong positive correlation while the physicochemical characteristics such as DO and TDS were not significantly associated with larvae abundance .

Article Details

How to Cite
Adejayan, A., Okoh, H., & Oyedeji, S. (2024). Characterization of Anopheles Mosquitoes Larvae Breeding habitats in Selected Six Local Government Areas in Ekiti State, South-West Nigeria. ABUAD International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(1), 18-26.
Author Biographies

Okoh Hilary, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Professor, AEB department, Entomology Unit, FUOYE

Segun Oyedeji, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Professor, Animal and Environmental Biology department, MolecularParasitologyUnit, FUOYE


Adugna, F., Wale, M., & Nibret, E. (2021). Review of Anopheles mosquito species, abundance, and distribution in Ethiopia. Volume, Article ID 6726622.

Akeju, A. V., Olusi, T. A., & Simon-Oke, I. A. (2022). Molecular identification and wing variations among malaria vectors in Akure North Local Government Area, Nigeria. Scientific Reports, 12, 7674.

Awolola, S. T., Oduola, A. O., Obansa, J. B., & Chukwurar, N. J. (2007). Anopheles gambiae s.s. breeding in polluted water bodies in urban Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 44(4), 241-244.

Awolola, T. S., Adeogun, A., Olakiigbe, A. K., Oyeniyi, T., Olukosi, Y. A., Okoh, H., Arowolo, T., Akila, J., Oduola, A., & Amajoh, C. N. (2018). Pyrethroids resistance intensity and resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae from malaria vector surveillance sites in Nigeria. PloS one, 13(12), e0205230.

Babalola, K. H., Hull, S., & Whittal, J. (2023). Assessing peri-urban land management using 8Rs framework of responsible land management: The case of peri-urban land in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Land, 12(9), 1795.

Bamou, R., Mayi, M. P. A., Djiappi-Tchamen, B., Nana-Ndjangwo, S. M., Nchoutpouen, E., Cornel, A. J., ... & Antonio-Nkondjio, C. (2021). An update on the mosquito fauna and mosquito-borne diseases distribution in Cameroon. Parasites & Vectors, 14, 527.

Basiliana, E., William, N.K., Robert, D.K., Robert, M. and Franklin, W.M. (2017). Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in Muheza, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 19(3).

Coetzee, M. (2020). Key to the females of Afrotropical Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). BMC Malaria Journal, 19, 70.

Coetzee, M., Hunt, R. H., & Wilkerson, R. (2013). Identification of malaria vectors in the Afrotropical region using morphological and molecular methods. BioMed Research International, 2013, 153986. doi:10.1155/2013/153986

Djihinto, O. Y., Medjigbodo, A. A., Gangbadja, A. R. A., Saizonou, H. M., Lagnika, H. O., Nanmede, D., ... & Djogbénou, L. S. (2022). Malaria-Transmitting Vectors Microbiota: Overview and Interactions With Anopheles Mosquito Biology. Frontiers in Microbiology, 13, 891573.

Division of Parasitic diseases and Malaria Center for Global Health. (December, 2022). Ekiti State Government. (2016). About Ekiti. Retrieved March 4, 2019, from

Emidi, B., Kisinza, W.N., Mmbando, B.P., Malima, R. and Mosha, F.W. (2017). Effect of physicochemical parameters on Anopheles and Culex mosquito larvae abundance in different breeding sites in a rural setting of Muheza, Tanzania. Journal of Parasites and Vectors, 10(1), 304-315.

Fanello, C., Santolamazza, F. and della Torre, A. (2002). Simultaneous identification of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex by PCRRFLP. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 16, 461- 464.

Harbach RE. Culex pipiens: species versus species complex taxonomic history and perspective. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2012 Dec;28(4 Suppl):10-23. doi: 10.2987/8756-971X-28.4.10. PMID: 23401941.

Jayeola Oladipo, H. (2022). Increasing challenges of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa: Priorities for public health research and policymakers. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 81, 104366.

Mathania, M. M., Munisi, D. Z., & Silayo, R. S. (2020). Spatial and temporal distribution of Anopheles mosquito's larvae and its determinants in two urban sites in Tanzania with different malaria transmission levels. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 11, e00179.

Nabatanzi, M., Ntono, V., Kamulegeya, J., Kwesiga, B., Bulage, L., Lubwama, B., ... & Harris, J. (2022). Malaria outbreak facilitated by increased mosquito breeding sites near houses and cessation of indoor residual spraying, Kole district, Uganda, January-June 2019. BMC Public Health, 22, 1898.

Nambunga, I. H., Ngowo, H. S., Mapua, S. A., Hape, E. E., Msugupakulya, B. J., Msaky, D. S., ... Okumu, F. O. (2020). Aquatic habitats of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in rural south-eastern Tanzania. Malaria Journal, 19, 219.

Nebbak, A., Almeras, L., Parola, P., & Bitam, I. (2022). Mosquito Vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mosquito-Borne Diseases in North Africa. Insects, 13(10), 962.

Neafsey, D. E., Waterhouse, R. M., Abai, M. R., Aganezov, S. S., Alekseyev, M. A., Allen, J. E., ... Besansky, N. J. (2015). Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes. Science, 347(6217), 1258522.

Okoh, H. I., Akinsulire, O., Omonijo, A. O., Adeyemo, A., Iyeh, C., Mogaji, H. O., Olorunniyi, O. F., Awe, O. B., Ayeni, A., Arilekolase, O., Adeogun, A., Arowolo, T., & Awolola, S. (2017). Morphological identification and molecular characterisation of Anopheles mosquitoes from Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Federal Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(1).

Okoh, H. I., Akinfemiwa, C. A., Iyeh, C., Mogaji, H. O., Omonijo, A. O., & Awe, O. B. (2020). Spatial distribution and breeding habitat characterisation of Anopheles mosquitoes in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. FUOYE Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 5(1), 154. ISSN: 2616-1419. Available online at www.

Onen, H., Luzala, M. M., Kigozi, S., Sikumbili, R. M., Muanga, C. J. K., Zola, E. N., ... & Memvanga, P. B. (2021). Mosquito-Borne Diseases and Their Control Strategies: An Overview Focused on Green Synthesized Plant-Based Metallic Nanoparticles. 14, 221.

Salomé, G., Riddin, M., & Braack, L. (2023). Species Composition, Seasonal Abundance, and Biting Behavior of Malaria Vectors in Rural Conhane Village, Southern Mozambique. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(4), 3597.

Sarpong, E., Acheampong, D. O., Fordjour, G. N. R., Anyanful, A., Aninagyei, E., Tuoyire, D. A., Thomford, N. E. (2022). Zero malaria: a mirage or reality for populations of sub-Saharan Africa in health transition. Malaria Journal, 21, 314.

Singh, U. S., Amdep, F. L., Kshiar, A., Acharya, P., Karumuthil, T., Kale, S., ... Albert, S. (2023). Characterisation of Anopheles species composition and genetic diversity in Meghalaya, northeast India, using molecular identification tools. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 112, 105450.

Thomas, S., Ravishankaran, S., Justin, N.A.J.A. et al. Resting and feeding preferences of Anopheles stephensi in an urban setting, perennial for malaria. Malar J 16, 111 (2017).

World Health Organization. (2023). World Malaria Report 2023. WHO, Geneva