Effect of Green Admixtures on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete Composite

Main Article Content

O. M. Akwenuke
E. D. Edafiadhe


The study was carried out to evaluate the suitability of organic admixture in concrete production. Six sets of concrete were made by partially replacing the fine aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates (gravel) with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of sawdust and periwinkle shells respectively, in the presence of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% cassava starch. The compressive strength and density of the six concrete groups were tested, in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International approved guidelines. Findings from the laboratory investigations indicated that the sawdust and periwinkle admixtures generally reduced the concrete compressive strength, as their proportion in the concrete increased from 0 to 25%; while the cassava tends to increase the concrete’s compressive strength. The compressive strength of the concrete declined from 25.2 to 10.3 MPa, 27.1 to 11.7 MPa, 30.7 to 13.6 MPa, 31.4 to 14.5 MPa, 30.9 to 14.2 MPa, and 28.4 to 13.8 MPa, after the incorporation of 25% sawdust and 25% periwinkle shells, as partial replacement for sand and gravels respectively, in the presence of 2.5% cassava starch. Furthermore, the results revealed that the compressive strength of the concrete increased non-linearly, as the cassava starch volume increased from 0 to 2.5%. However, the concrete set produced from 20% sawdust and 20% periwinkle shells was light-weight and its compressive strength was within the limit of 17 MPa recommended by Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS) for light-weight concrete required for residential buildings construction. The findings of this study revealed that agricultural waste materials are suitable admixture materials in the concrete industry.

Article Details

How to Cite
Akwenuke, O. M., & Edafiadhe, E. D. (2023). Effect of Green Admixtures on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete Composite. ABUAD International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 3(2), 87-93. https://doi.org/10.53982/aijnas.2023.0302.12-j


Abalaka, A. E. (2011). Comparative effects of cassava starch and simple sugar in cement mortar and concrete. ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology, 4(1): 13-22.
Agbi, G.G., Akpokodje O.I. and Uguru, H. (2020). Compressive Strength of Commercially Produced Sandcrete Blocks within Isoko Metropolis of Delta State, Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 1(1): 91-103.
Agbi, G.G. and Uguru, H. (2021). Assessing the Impact of Cassava Starch on the Structural Properties of Sandcete Blocks Produced from Recycled Paper. Saudi J Eng Technol, 6(5): 99-103.
Ajagbe, W.O., Tijani, M.A. and Agbede, O.A. (2018). Compressive strength of concrete made from aggregates of different sources. Journal of Research Information in Civil Engineering, 15(1): 1963 - 1976
Akindahunsi, A. A. and Uzoegbo, H. C. (2015).Strength and durability properties of concrete with starch admixture. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 9(3): 323-335.
Akpokodje, O. I, Uguru, H. and Esegbuyota, D. (2019). Study of flexural strength and flexural modulus of reinforced concrete beams with raffia palm fibers. World J. Civ. Engin. Constr. Techn., 3(1): 057-064
Akpokodje, O.I., Agbi, G.G, and Uguru, H. (2020). Evaluation of cassava effluent as organic admixture in concrete production for farm structures. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 1(2):271-282.
Akpokodje, O. I. Agbi, G. G., Uguru, H. and Nyorere, O. (2021a). Evaluation of the compressive strength of commercial sandcrete blocks produced in two metropolises of Delta State, Nigeria. Applied Journal of Physical Science. 3(2): 61-71
Akpokodje, O.I., Agbi, G.G. and Uguru, H. (2021b). Statistical evaluation of the effect of organic admixture on the mechanical properties of wood shavings-concrete for building construction. Saudi J Civ Eng, 5(7): 183-191.
ASTM - C136 (2006). Standard test method for sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates. Retrieved from https://www.astm.org/standards/c136
ASTM C39/C39M (2014). Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. Retrieved from https://www.astm.org/ c0039_c0039m-14.html
ASTM D2487 (2017). Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System). Retrieved from https://www. astm.org/d2487-17.html.
ASTM C642 (2021). Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete. Retrieved from https://www.astm.org/c0642-21.html
Bamidele, I.O.D. (2002): Properties of periwinkle granite concrete. Journal of Civil Engineering, 8: 7-36.
Beautin Nirsha, R., Anish, C.I., Danielsam, N., Sanith, S., Gobalakrishnan, S., Jaya Rajan, M., Mahmoud, H., Amal. A.A., Sami, R., Rada, M., Zewail, Y., Uguru, H., Aljuraide, N.I. and Murthy C. (2023). Characterization and Dye Removal application Using Initiated Carbon Originated from rubber seed shell Biomass. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 17: 152–158
Bu, J., Tian, Z., Zheng, S. and Tang, Z. (2017). Effect of sand content on strength and pore structure of cement mortar. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology Mater. Sci. Ed., 32(2): 382-390.
Dahiru, D., Yusuf, U. S. and Paul, N. J. (2018). Characteristics of concrete produced with periwinkle and palm kernel shells as aggregates. FUTY Journal of the Environment, 12(1): 1-10.
Daramola, O.O., Ogunsanya, A., Akintayo, O. and Oladele, O.I. (2018). Mechanical properties of Al 6063 metal matrix composites reinforced with agrowastes silica particles, Leonardo J. Pract. Technol., 106: 89–104.
Eboibi, O., Akpokodje, O. I. and Uguru, H. (2022). Evaluation of organic enhancer on the mechanical properties of periwinkle shells concrete. Journal of Engineering Innovations and Applications. 1(1): 13-22.
Edafeadhe, G. O. I., and Uguru, H. (2018). Influence of Field Practices on the Performance of Cucumber Fruits harvesting and processing machines. Direct Research Journal of Engineering and Information Technology. 5 (5):42-47.
Edafiadhe, E. O., Nyorere, O and Uguru H. (2019). Compressive behaviours of oil bean shell and wood particulates/ epoxy composite board. Archives of Current Research International, 16(3): 1-8.
Erofeeva, I.V. (2018). Physical and mechanical properties, biological and climatic stability of powder-activated concrete. Autoreferat of the Dissertation of the Candidate of Technical Sciences (Saransk: Publ. H. of the Mordovian University) 28.
Esegbuyota, D., Akpokodje, O.I. and Uguru, H. (2019). Physical characteristics and compressive strength of raffia fibre reinforced sandcrete blocks. Direct Research Journal of Engineering and Information Technology, 6(1):1-8
Ettu, L. O., Ibearugbulem, O. M, Ezeh, J. C. and Anya, U. C. (2013). A reinvestigation of the prospects of using periwinkle shell as partial replacement for granite in concrete. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 2(3):54-59.
George, R.O. (2014). Minimizing hot weather effects on fresh and hardened concrete by use of cassava powder as admixture. European International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(2): 1-8. Jahanbakhshi, A. and Kheiralipour, K. (2019). Influence of vermicompost and sheep manure on mechanical properties of tomato fruit. Food Science & Nutrition, 7(2):1172–1178 Joseph, S.K. and Xavier, A.S. (2016). Effect of starch admixtures on fresh and hardened properties of concrete. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, 4(3):27-30.
Kalashnikov, V. I. (2012). What is powder-activated concrete of the new generation. Building Materials, 10: 70-71.
Mokaloba, N. and Batane, R. (2014). The effects of mercerization and acetylation treatments on the properties of sisal fiber and its interfacial adhesion characteristics on polypropylene. Int J Eng. Sci. Technol. 6(4): 83–97.
Nishant, R., Abhishek, T. and and Alok, K.S. (2016). High performance concrete and its applications in the field of civil engineering construction. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology. 6(3):982-987
Neville, A. M. (2011). Properties of concrete (5th ed.). London: Pearson Education Limited. Essex
Obukoeroro J. and Uguru, H. E. (2021). Evaluation of the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon black/carbonized snail shell powder hybridized conductive epoxy composite. International Journal of Innovative Scientific & Engineering Technologies Research, 9(1):39-49.
Omoniyi, O.O., Aweda, J. O., Ohijeagbon, I.O., Busari, R.A. and Ndagi, M. (2020b). Modeling and simulation of mechanical properties of pulverized cow bone and lateritic paving tiles. The Civil Engineering Journal, 4: 551-558.
Oyawa, W.O., Githimba, N.K. and Mang’urio, G.N. (2016). Structural response of composite concrete filled plastic tubes in compression. Steel and Composite Structures, 21: 589-604.
Papy, S.K. and Timothée, N. (2023) Study of physical and mechanical properties of wood concrete. Open Access Library Journal, 10: e9720 – e9732
Portland Cement Association – PCA (2023). Chemical Admixtures. Available online at: https://www. cement.org/cement-concrete/concrete-materials/ chemical-admixtures
Rahman, A. (2020). Analysis on compressive strength of concrete using different sources of fine aggregates. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Research and Innovation in Civil Engineering (ICRICE 2020). 25-29
Ravikumar, C.S., Ramasamy, V. and Thandavamoorthy, T.S. (2015). Effect of fibers in concrete composites. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 10(1): 419-429.
Suhad, M.A., Qasssim, Y. H., Alaa, S.K., and Zainab, H.A. (2016). Effect of using corn starch as concrete admixture. International Journal Engineering Research and Science & Technology, 5(3): 35-44.
Thanoon, K.W., Ali, S.A. and Reddy, S.S. (2023). Effect of using sugar and gypsum as a retarder on concrete properties in Omani weather. Nigerian journal of technological development, 20(1): 9-14
Umurhurhu, B. and Uguru, H. (2019). Tensile behaviour of oil bean pod shell and mahogany sawdust reinforced epoxy resin composite. International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. 7(1):1-7
Uguru, H, Akpokodje, O.I. and Esegbuyota, D. (2020). Remediation potency of charcoal block and sawdust in petroleum products contaminated soil. Trends Tech Sci Res. 4(4):107 – 115
Uguru ,H., Akpokodje, O.I. and Agbi, G.G. (2022). Assessment of Compressive Strength Variations of Concrete Poured in-Site of Residential Buildings in Isoko District, Delta State, Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 3(2): 311- 327. https://doi.org/10.46592/turkager.1128061
Unified Soil Classification System – USCS (2015). Soil classification basics. Available online at: http:// faculty.uml.edu/ehajduk/Teaching/14.330/documen ts/14.330SoilClassification.pdf
Uyeri, C. and Uguru, H. (2018). Compressive resistance of groundnut kernels as influenced by kernel size.
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 3(4): 1-7.