Main Article Content
Globally, in children, less than 5 years of age, acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Long-lasting immunity is not induced by respiratory infections as reinfection can occur throughout life. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of six respiratory viruses specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in children with ARTIs in Owo, Ondo State. The sera samples of two hundred (200) subjects who consented to participate in the study were collected and tested using serum-specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits, anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the influenza A virus (FLU-A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), coronavirus (CoV), rhinovirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV) respectively (IgM and IgG ELISA Kits; Melsin Medical Co., China). The mean age of the subjects tested was 3.49±1.41. The total IgM seropositivity was detected in 83% of the children with the highest being AdV 91 (45.5%), followed by PIV 89 (44.5%), FLU-A and RV with 88 (44%) respectively, CoV 85 (42.5%), and RSV 80 (40%). The total IgG seropositivity was detected in 87.5% of the children with the highest being PIV 152 (76%), followed by RSV 135 (67.5%), RV 93 (46.5%), AdV 81 (40.5%), CoV and FLU A 76 (38%) respectively. The study revealed the presence of primary and secondary infection of respiratory viruses in Owo and the need for preventive and control measures against respiratory tract viruses are suggested.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors hold the copyright of all published articles except otherwise stated.
Chonmaitree, T., Revai, K., Grady, J. J., Clos, A., Patel, J. A., Nair, S., Fan, J., and Henrickson, K.J. (2008). Viral upper respiratory tract infection and otitis media complication in young children. Clin. Infect. Dis., 46, 815–823.
Brodzinski, H. and Ruddy, R. M. (2009). “Review of new and newly discovered respiratory tract viruses in children,” Pediatric Emergency Care, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 352–363, 2009.
Liu, W. K., Liu, Q., Chen, D. H., Liang, H. X., Chen, M. X., Qiu, S. Y., Yang, Z. Y. and Zhou, R. (2014). Epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children in Guangzhou: a three-year study. PLOS One, 9(5): e96674. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096674
Kling, S., Donninger, H., Williams, Z., Vermeulen, J., Weinberg, E., Latiff, K., Ghildyal, R. and Bardin, P. (2005). Persistence of rhinovirus RNA after asthma exacerbation in children. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, Vol. 35(5): 672–678. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02244.x
Akinloye OM, Ronkko E, Savolainen-Kopra C, et al. Specific viruses detected in Nigerian children in association with acute respiratory disease. J. Tropical Medicine. 2011; 10: 1155.(38)
Kolawole, O., Oguntoye, M., Dam, T. and Chunara, R. (2017). Etiology of respiratory tract infections in the community and clinic in Ilorin, Nigeria. BMC Research Notes, 10:712. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-3063-1
Krammer, F. (2019). The human antibody response to influenza A virus infection and vaccination. Nature Reviews Immunology, 19(6), 383-397.
Suntronwong, N., Vichaiwattana, P., Wongsrisang, L., Klinfueng, S., Korkong, S., Thongmee, T. et al. (2021) Prevalence of antibodies against seasonal influenza A and B viruses among older adults in rural Thailand: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE 16(8): e0256475. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0256475
Shi, T., McAllister, D. A., O'Brien, K. L. et al. Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015: a systematic review and modelling study. Lancet. 2017; 390(10098): 946 -958.
Pecchini, R., Berezin, E. N., Felicio, M. C. C., Passos, S. D. et al. (2008). Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of the Infection by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children Admitted in Santa Casa de São Paulo Hospital. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 12(6): 476-479.
Nair, H., Brooks, W. A., Katz, M. et al. (2011). Global burden of respiratory infections due to seasonal influenza in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet (London, England), 378(9807), 1917–1930. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61051-9.
Thomazelli, L. M., Oliveira, D., Durigon, G. S., Whitaker, B., Kamili, S., Berezin, E. N. and Durigon, E. L. (2018). Human parainfluenza virus surveillance in pediatric patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a special view of parainfluenza type 4. Jornal de pediatria, 94(5), 554–558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2017.07.017
Blomqvist, S., Roivainen, M., Puhakka, T., Kleemola, M. and Hovi, T. (2002). Virological and serological analysis of rhinovirus infections during the first two years of life in a cohort of children. Journal of Medical Virology, 66:263-8.
Makela, M. J., Puhakka, T., Ruuskanen, O., Leinonen, M., Saikku, P., Kimpimaki, M. et al. (1998). Viruses and bacteria in the etiology of the common cold. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 36:539-42.
Ruotsalainen, M., Hyvarinen, M. K., Piippo-Savolainen, E. and Korppi, M. (2013). Adolescent asthma after rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmonol, 48:633-639.
Jain, S., Williams, D. J., Arnold, S. R., Ampofo, K., Bramley, A. M., Reed, C. et al. (2015). Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. New England Journal of Medicine, 372:835-845.
Echevarría, M. (2008) Adenoviruses in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Microbiol Rev 21:704–715
Chen, S. P., Huang, Y. C., Chiu, C. H., Wong, K. S., Huang, Y. L., Huang, C. G. et al. (2013). Clinical features of radiologically confirmed pneumonia due to adenovirus in children. Journal of Clinical Virology, 56 (1): 7–12.
Abbas, K. Z., Lombos, E., Duvvuri, V. R., Olsha, R., Higgins, R. R., and Gubbay, J. B. (2013). Temporal changes in respiratory adenovirus serotypes circulating in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, during December 2008 to April 2010. Virology Journal, 10: 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-10-15
Gerna, G., Campanini, G., Rovida, F., Percivalle, E., Sarasini, A., Marchi, A. et al. (2006). Genetic variability of human coronavirus OC43-, 229E-, and NL63-like strains and their association with lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants and immunocompromised patients. Journal of Medical Virology, 78: 938–949. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.20645
Kuypers, J., Martin, E. T., Heugel, J., Wright, N., Morrow, R., and Englund, J. A. (2007). Clinical disease in children associated with newly described coronavirus subtypes. Pediatrics, 119(1), e70–e76. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-1406
Smuts, H., Workman, L. and Zar, H. J. (2008). Role of human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus NL63 and human bocavirus in infants and young children with acute wheezing. Journal of Medical Virology, 80:906–912. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21135
Yao, Y., Zhipeng, Z., Wenqi, S., Runqing, L., Dong, Z., Kun, Q., et al. (2019) Unreliable usage of a single influenza virus IgM antibody assay in influenza-like illness: A retrospective study of the 2016–2018 flu epidemic. PLoS ONE 14(4): e0215514. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0215514
Sauerbrei, A., Langenhan, T., Brandstadt, A., Schmidt-Ott, R., Krumbholz, A., et al. (2014). Prevalence of antibodies against influenza A and B viruses in children in Germany, 2008 to 2010. Euro Surveill, 19(5):pii=20687.
Faneye, A., Motayo, B. O., Adesanmi, A. and Onoja, B. (2014). Evaluation of IgG antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and associated risk factors for severe respiratory tract infections in pre-school children in North-Central, Nigeria. Afr J Infect Dis., 8 (2): 36–39.
Sulaiman, M. A., Muhammad, M. H. and Jane, F. (2017). Seroprevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children (0-5 years) attending Institute of Child Health, Banzazzau Zaria Kaduna State. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 107 - 110
Idris, O. O., and Kolawole, O. M. (2022). Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus and human adenovirus among children in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Journal of medical virology, 94(6), 2548–2557. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27473
Lin, Z. F., Zhao, M. Q., Guo, M., Kuang, L., Wang, C. B., Lian, G. W., et al. (2015). The seroprevalence of some pathogen specific IgM in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Guangzhou region, 2011–2012. Clin Labs, 61(8): 917–924.
Odebisi-Omokanye, M. B., Kolawole, O. M., Gobir, A. A. and Abdulkadri, M. B. (2017). Serological survey of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among children in Ilorin, North-Central, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Medicine and Dentistry, Vol. 6(4): 3-10.
Odebisi-Omokanye, M. B., Kolawole, O. M., Gobir, A. A., Abdulkadri, M. B. (2018). Seroepidemiologic study of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVS) among children in Ilorin, North Central, Nigeria. Trends in Science and Technology Journal, Vol. 3 (1): 277-281.
Sale, J., Ahmad, A. A., Idris, H. W., Aliyu, A. M. and Rogo, L. D. (2010). Seroprevalence of human parainfluenza virus type 2 infection among children (1-5years) in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3(1): 6 – 9.
Heimdal, I., Moe, N., Krokstad, S., et al. (2019). Human coronavirus in hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections: a 9-year population-based study from Norway. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 219: 1198–1206.
Leung, G. M., Chung, P. H., Tsang, T., Lim, W., Chan, S. K., Chau, P., et al., (2004). SARS-CoV antibody prevalence in all Hong Kong patient contacts. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10:1653–1656.
Kolawole, O. M., Adeyemi, B. J. and Gobir, A. A. (2015). Prevalence of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute respiratory symptoms in Ilorin, Nigeria. The Nigerian Health Journal, 15(2):62-68.
Kolawole, O. M., Oladosu, T. O., Abdulkarim, A. A. and Okoh, A. I. (2014). Prevalence of adenovirus respiratory tract and HIV co-infections in patients attending the University of Ilorin, teaching hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. BMC Research Notes, 7: 870.(33)
Trojnar, Z., Ciepiela, O. and Demkow, U. A. (2014). The prevalence of IgG and IgA against adenoviruses in serum of children aged 11-26 months, hospitalised in the Clinical Paediatric Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Centr Eur J Immunol., 39 (1): 91-95.
Oluremi, O. S., Odu, O. O., Amu, E. O., Solomon, O. A., et al. (2018). Prevalence and risk factors of acute respiratory infection among under fives in rural communities of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 7(1):1-12.
Goel, K, Ahmad, S., Agarwal, G., Goel, P. and Kumar, V. (2012). A Cross Sectional Study on Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in Under‐Five Children of Meerut District. India J Community Med Health Educ., 2(176):2161‐0711.
Figueras-Aloy J, Carbonell-Estrany X, Quero J, IRIS study group. Case control study of the risk factors linked to respiratory syncytial virus infection requiring hospitalisation in premature infants born at gestational age of 33-35 weeks in Spain. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004; 28: 815-820.
Karimi A., Khoshdel A., and Imani R. (2010). Seroprevalence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Parainfluenza Virus in Children with Respiratory Problems in Shahre-Kord, Central Iran. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 12 (4): 504-506.
Niang, M. N., Diop, N. S., Fall, A., Kiori, D. E., Sarr, F. D., Sy, S., et al. (2017). Respiratory viruses in patients with influenza-like illness in Senegal: Focus on human respiratory adenoviruses. PLoS ONE, 12(3): e0174287.