Main Article Content
The purpose of this study is to identify a system for tracking the distribution of increasingly abused prescription drugs. The problems
identified in the study was the increase of prescribed drugs falling into the category of drugs that are frequently abused and this was as
a result of improper systems in place designed to track such drugs alongside normal drug distribution networks. The theories of drug
abuse highlight the propensity for the increased rate of drug abuse amongst individuals and why it has become imperative that a system
that will track such drugs be developed and must be dynamic to readily update new discoveries falling into the abuse category. The study
used the object-oriented design methodology to formulate designs for the system through eliciting information on the subject matter with
documents and literature of previous works, empirical investigations and personal interviews. The obtained knowledge was then used in
designing the proposed system requirements. Manual tests were carried out in units for each component’s functionality before the system
was tested as a single integrated unit. The study concludes with the development of a system that can meet the dynamic requirements for
tracking the distribution of drugs that are subject to drug abuse along with the distribution framework.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors hold the copyright of all published articles except otherwise stated.
Akannam, T. (2008). North-West Rank Highest in Drug Addiction. Nigerian Drug Statistics by Zone. Retrieved 7, February 2019 from http://www.nairaland.com/203955/nigerian-drug-statistics-zone.
Begum, S. A. (2014). Drug Distribution Systems. Retrieved 17, January 2019.
Boivin, R. (2014). Risks, prices, and positions: A social network analysis of illegal drug trafficking in the world-economy. International Journal of Drug Policy, 25(2): 235-243. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.12.004
Brady, J. E., Wunsch, H., DiMaggio, C., Lang, B. H., Giglio, J. and Li, G. (2014). Prescription Drug Monitoring and Dispensing of Prescription Opioids. Public Health Reports, 129(2): 139–147. DOI: 10.1177/003335491412900207.
Brown, R., Riley, M., Ulrich, L., Kraly, E., Jenkins, P., Krupa, N. and Gadomski, A. (2017). Impact of New York Prescription Drug Monitoring Program, I-STOP, on state-wide overdose morbidity. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 178: 348-354. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.05.023.
Case, A. and Deaton, A. (2015). Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(49): 15078-15083. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1518393112.
Caulkins, J. and Reuter, P. (1998). What price data tells us about drug markets. Journal of Drug Issues, 28(3): 593-612. DOI: 10.1177/002204269802800302.
Denise M. Bodreau, Gwen Lapham, Eric A. Johnson, Jennifer F. Bobb, Abigail G. Matthews, Jennifer McCormack, David Liu, Cynthia I. Campbell, Rebecca C. Rossom,
Ingrid A. Binswanger, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Julia H. Arnsten, Chinazo O. Cunningham, Joseph E. Glass, Mark T. Murphy, Mohammad Zare, Rulin C. Hechter, Brian Ahmedani, Jordan M. Braciszewski, Viviana E. Horigian, José Szapocznik, Jeffrey H. Samet, Andrew J. Saxon, Robert P. Schwartz, Katharine A. Bradley (2020). Documented opioid use disorder and its treatment in primary care patients across six U.S. health systems. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 112:41-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.02.001
Dowell, D., Zhang, K., Noonan, R., & Hockenberry, J. (2016). Mandatory Provider Review And Pain Clinic Laws Reduce the Amounts of Opioids Prescribed and Overdose Death Rates. Health Affairs, 35(10), 1876-1883. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0448
Drug Abuse: MedlinePlus. (2018). Retrieved 14, December 2018 from https://medlineplus.gov/drugabuse.html 4, January 2019.
Drug Tracking System (ITS). (2012). Retrieved 15, January 2019 from http://www.antepharma.com/news/2-drugtracking-system-(its).html
Forth, G., Swenson, D. and Steusloff, P. (2004). Pharmaceutical Tracking System. American. Retrieved 25, December 2018.
Hanson, R., Sudduth, B. and Detar, D. (2012). Drug Delivery Device Incorporating a Tracking Code. 700/14. American. Retrieved 25, December 2018.
Ikenna Daniel Molobe, Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya (2021). The prevalence of drug use and illicit trafficking: A descriptive cross sectional study of irregular migrant returnees in Nigeria. Journal of Migration and Health, 3:100034.
Kenton, W. (2018). Distribution Channels. Retrieved 20, December 2018 from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/distribution-channel.asp
Kjos, A., Binh, N., Robertson, C. and Rovers, J. (2016). A drug procurement, storage and distribution model in public hospitals in a developing country. Research in
Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 12(3): 371-383. DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2015.07.007
Lily, R. B., Bornfreund, J. J. and Anon, A. J. (2011). Controlled Substance Tracking System and Method. 705/2. Retrieved 25, December 2018.
Mamman, H., Ahmad, T., & Lim, H. (2014). Adolescents and Drug Abuse in Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 4(2224-3208)
New York State Opioid Poisoning, Overdose and Prevention. (2015). Retrieved 20, December 2018 from https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/aids/general/opioid_overdose_prevention/docs/annual_report2015.
Ogbonna, B. (2016). National drug distribution in Nigeria: implications for the goals of National Drug Policy. European Journal for Pharmacy and Medical Research,
Organized Crime Threat Assessment OCTA (2011). European Union Organized Crime Threat Assessment 2011. Retrieved 7, January 2019.
Oshodi, O., Aina, O., & Onajole, A. (2010). Substance use among secondary school students in an urban setting in Nigeria: prevalence and associated factors. African Journal of Psychiatry, 13(1). DOI: 10.4314/ajpsy.v13i1.53430
Rosenblatt, R., Andrilla, C., Catlin, M., & Larson, E. (2015). Geographic and Specialty Distribution of US Physicians Trained to Treat Opioid Use Disorder. The Annals of Family Medicine, 13(1): 23-26. DOI: 10.1370/afm.1735
Rovers, J., & Mages, M. (2017). A model for a drug distribution system in remote Australia as a social determinant of health using event structure analysis. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 3. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-017-2629-x.
Sanghvi, R. (2014). Drug distribution in hospital pharmacy. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/rajusanghvi1/drug-distribution-in-hospitalpharmacy
14, January 2019.
Trouiller, P., Olliaro, P., Torreele, E., Orbinski, J., Laing, R. and Ford, N. (2002). Drug development for neglected diseases: a deficient market and a public health policy failure. Lancet (London, England), 359(9324): 2188–2194. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09096-7
Unick, G., Rosenblum, D., Mars, S. and Ciccarone, D. (2013). Intertwined Epidemics: National Demographic Trends in Hospitalizations for Heroin- and Opioid-Related Overdoses, 1993–2009. Plos ONE, 8(2): e54496. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054496.
UNODC World Drug Report 2012 | Substance Abuse | Illegal Drug Trade. (2012). Retrieved 28, December 2018 from https://www.scribd.com/document/112377115/UNODC-World-DrugReport-2012.
Warner, M., Chen, L., & Makuc, D. (2009). Products -Data Briefs - Number 22 - September 2009. Retrieved 14, December, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db22.htm