Main Article Content
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) has been used in traditional medicine all over the world including Nigeria for a wide range of ailments. In the present study, the phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activities (by ABTS and DPPH methods), in vitro antimicrobial assays (against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli) using agar well diffusion method, and pH of the fermented seeds of F. vulgare were investigated. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, phenols, phytosterols, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Alkaloid was absent on day 7 of the fermented seeds but was present on day 14. The antioxidant activity of the fermented sample of F. vulgare at day 14 was proportional to the concentration of the sample.
The zones of inhibition (in diameter) obtained were dependent on the tested concentrations (100%, 50% and 25%) and ranged between 5mm-18mm on day 7 and 6mm- 20mm on day 14 against the test pathogens. The trend of acidity increased with the days of fermentation. Hence, with the observed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the fermented seeds of F. vulgare, it can be considered a relatively safe agent with a long remarkable history in traditional medicine.
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